Labroo, M. R., Studer, A. J. & Rutkoski, J. E. Heterosis and hybrid crop breeding: a multidisciplinary review. Front. Genet. 12, 643761 (2021).
Mackay, I. J., Cockram, J., Howell, P. & Powell, W. Understanding the classics: the unifying concepts of transgressive segregation, inbreeding depression and heterosis and their central relevance for crop breeding. Plant Biotechnol. J. 19, 26–34 (2021).
Béné, C. et al. Understanding food systems drivers: a critical review of the literature. Glob. Food Sec. 23, 149–159 (2019).
Clapp, J. Food 3rd edn (Polity, 2020).
Lammerts van Bueren, E. T., Struik, P. C., van Eekeren, N. & Nuijten, E. Towards resilience through systems-based plant breeding: a review. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 38, 42 (2018).
Kantar, M. B. et al. The many‐faced Janus of plant breeding. Plants People Planet 1, 306–309 (2019).
Lammerts van Bueren, E. T. et al. The need to breed crop varieties suitable for organic farming, using wheat, tomato and broccoli as examples: a review. NJAS 58, 193–205 (2011).
Chahal, G. S. & Gosal, S. S. Principles and Procedures of Plant Breeding: Biotechnological and Conventional Approaches (Alpha Science International, 2002).
Brown, J. & Caligari, P. D. S. An Introduction to Plant Breeding (Blackwell, 2008).
Rijk, B., van Ittersum, M. & Withagen, J. Genetic progress in Dutch crop yields. Field Crops Res. 149, 262–268 (2013).
Rudolf-Pilih, K. et al. Proposal of a new hybrid breeding method based on genotyping, inter-pollination, phenotyping and paternity testing of selected elite F1 hybrids. Front. Plant Sci. 10, 1111 (2019).
Lindhout, P. et al. Towards F1 hybrid seed potato breeding. Potato Res. 54, 301–312 (2011).
Bélanger, J. & Pilling, D. The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture (FAO, 2019).
Priyadarshan, P. M. Plant Breeding: Classical to Modern (Springer, 2019).
World Food and Agriculture Statistical Pocketbook 2019 (FAO, 2019).
Acquaah, G. Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding 3rd edn (Wiley, 2020).
Sterck, L., Rombauts, S., Vandepoele, K., Rouze, P. & Vandepeer, Y. How many genes are there in plants (…and why are they there)? Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 10, 199–203 (2007).
Crouch, D. J. M. & Bodmer, W. F. Polygenic inheritance, GWAS, polygenic risk scores, and the search for functional variants. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 117, 18924–18933 (2020).
Bernardo, R. Reinventing quantitative genetics for plant breeding: something old, something new, something borrowed, something BLUE. Heredity 125, 375–385 (2020).
Zhao, Y. et al. Unlocking big data doubled the accuracy in predicting the grain yield in hybrid wheat. Sci. Adv. 7, eabf9106 (2021).
Barrett, S. C. H. Mating strategies in flowering plants: the outcrossing–selfing paradigm and beyond. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 358, 991–1004 (2003).
Charlesworth, D., Vekemans, X., Castric, V. & Glémin, S. Plant self‐incompatibility systems: a molecular evolutionary perspective. N. Phytol. 168, 61–69 (2005).
Whitehead, M. R., Lanfear, R., Mitchell, R. J. & Karron, J. D. Plant mating systems often vary widely among populations. Front. Ecol. Evol. 6, 38 (2018).
Lande, R. & Schemske, D. W. The evolution of self-fertilization and inbreeding depression in plants. I. Genetic models. Evolution 39, 24–40 (1985).
Porcher, E. & Lande, R. The evolution of self-fertilization and inbreeding depression under pollen discounting and pollen limitation: pollination biology and evolution of selfing. J. Evol. Biol. 18, 497–508 (2005).
Husband, B. C. & Schemske, D. W. Evolution of the magnitude and timing of inbreeding depression in plants. Evolution 50, 54–70 (1996).
Harlan, J. R. & Wet, J. M. J. Toward a rational classification of cultivated plants. TAXON 20, 509–517 (1971).
Palmer, R. G. & Hymowitz, T. in Reference Module in Food Science B9780081005965002146 (Elsevier, 2016).
Tourrette, E., Falque, M. & Martin, O. C. Enhancing backcross programs through increased recombination. Genet. Sel. Evol. 53, 25 (2021).
Brock, R. D. The role of induced mutations in plant improvement. Radiat. Bot. 11, 181–196 (1971).
Ahloowalia, B. S., Maluszynski, M. & Nichterlein, K. Global impact of mutation-derived varieties. Euphytica 135, 187–204 (2004).
Louwaars, N. Seeds of Confusion: The Impact of Policies on Seed Systems (Wageningen University and Research, 2007).
Jamali, S. H., Cockram, J. & Hickey, L. T. Is plant variety registration keeping pace with speed breeding techniques? Euphytica 216, 131 (2020).
De Jonge, B., Salazar, R. & Visser, B. How regulatory issues surrounding new breeding technologies can impact smallholder farmer breeding: a case study from the Philippines. Plants People Planet 4, 96–105 (2022).
Almekinders, C. J. M., Hebinck, P., Marinus, W., Kiaka, R. D. & Waswa, W. W. Why farmers use so many different maize varieties in West Kenya. Outlook Agric. 50, 406–417 (2021).
Kaeppler, S. Heterosis: many genes, many mechanisms—end the search for an undiscovered unifying theory. ISRN Bot. 2012, 682824 (2012).
Virmani, S. S., Sun, Z. X., Mou, T. M., Ali, A. J. & Mao, C. X. Two-Line Hybrid Rice Breeding Manual (International Rice Research Institute, 2003).
Lindhout, P. et al. in Burleigh Dodds Series in Agricultural Science: Achieving Sustainable Cultivation of Potatoes (ed. Wang-Pruski, G.) 99–122 (Burleigh Dodds Science, 2018).
Nienhuis, J. & Sills, G. in Reproductive Biology and Plant Breeding (eds Dattée, Y. et al.) 387–396 (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1992).
Singh, S. & Gupta, S. K. Formation of heterotic pools and understanding relationship between molecular divergence and heterosis in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.]. PLoS ONE 14, e0207463 (2019).
Allard, R. W. History of plant population genetics. Annu. Rev. Genet. 33, 1–27 (1999).
Gupta, P. K. et al. Hybrid wheat: past, present and future. Theor. Appl. Genet. 132, 2463–2483 (2019).
Xiao, Z. et al. Overcoming cabbage crossing incompatibility by the development and application of self-compatibility-QTL-specific markers and genome-wide background analysis. Front. Plant Sci. 10, 189 (2019).
Chen, L. & Liu, Y.-G. Male sterility and fertility restoration in crops. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 65, 579–606 (2014).
Peet, M. M. & Welles, G. in Tomatoes (ed. Heuvelink, E.) 257–304 (CABI, 2005).
Erenstein, O. & Kassie, G. T. Seeding eastern Africa’s maize revolution in the post-structural adjustment era: a review and comparative analysis of the formal maize seed sector. Int. Food Agribus. Manage. Rev. 21, 39–52 (2018).
Crow, J. Anecdotal, historical and critical commentaries on genetics. Genetics 148, 923–928 (1998).
Duvick, D. N. The contribution of breeding to yield advances in maize (Zea mays L.). Adv. Agron. 86, 83–145 (2005).
Andorf, C. et al. Technological advances in maize breeding: past, present and future. Theor. Appl. Genet. 132, 817–849 (2019).
Troyer, A. F. Adaptedness and heterosis in corn and mule hybrids. Crop Sci. 46, 528–543 (2006).
Longin, C. F. H., Reif, J. C. & Würschum, T. Long-term perspective of hybrid versus line breeding in wheat based on quantitative genetic theory. Theor. Appl. Genet. 127, 1635–1641 (2014).
Jiang, Y., Schmidt, R. H., Zhao, Y. & Reif, J. C. A quantitative genetic framework highlights the role of epistatic effects for grain-yield heterosis in bread wheat. Nat. Genet. 49, 1741–1746 (2017).
Voss-Fels, K. P. et al. Breeding improves wheat productivity under contrasting agrochemical input levels. Nat. Plants 5, 706–714 (2019).
Boeven, P. H. G., Würschum, T., Rudloff, J., Ebmeyer, E. & Longin, C. F. H. Hybrid seed set in wheat is a complex trait but can be improved indirectly by selection for male floral traits. Euphytica 214, 110 (2018).
Boeven, P. H. G., Longin, C. F. H. & Würschum, T. A unified framework for hybrid breeding and the establishment of heterotic groups in wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 129, 1231–1245 (2016).
Douches, D. S., Maas, D., Jastrzebski, K. & Chase, R. W. Assessment of potato breeding progress in the USA over the last century. Crop Sci. 36, 1544–1552 (1996).
Jansky, S. H. et al. Reinventing potato as a diploid inbred line-based crop. Crop Sci. 56, 1412–1422 (2016).
Zhang, C. et al. Genome design of hybrid potato. Cell 184, 3873–3883.e3812 (2021).
Su, Y. et al. Introgression of genes for resistance against Phytophthora infestans in diploid potato. Am. J. Potato Res. 97, 33–42 (2020).
Hutten, R. C. B. Basic Aspects of Potato Breeding via the Diploid Level (Wageningen University and Research, 1994).
Stockem, J., de Vries, M., van Nieuwenhuizen, E., Lindhout, P. & Struik, P. C. Contribution and stability of yield components of diploid hybrid potato. Potato Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11540-019-09444-x (2020).
Steenhuijsen Piters, B. D. et al. Global Scoping Study on Fruits and Vegetables: Results from Literature and Data Analysis (Wageningen Economic Research, 2021).
Access to Seeds Index (Access to Seeds Foundation, 2019); https://www.accesstoseeds.org/
Yuan, L. P. Hybrid rice in China. Chin. J. Rice Sci. 1, 8–18 (1986).
Cheng, S. H., Zhuang, J. Y., Fan, Y. Y., Du, J. H. & Cao, L. Y. Progress in research and development on hybrid rice: a super-domesticate in China. Ann. Bot. 100, 959–966 (2007).
Miedaner, T. & Laidig, F. in Advances in Plant Breeding Strategies: Cereals (eds Al-Khayri, J. M. et al.) 343–372 (Springer International, 2019).
McGrath, J. M. & Panella, L. in Plant Breeding Reviews (ed. Goldman, I.) 167–218 (Wiley, 2018).
Oliver, E. & Shoham, J. Analysis of Sales and Profitability within the Seed Sector (IHS Markit, 2019); https://cdn.ihsmarkit.com/www/pdf/0320/202001-Seedsectorsale-Analysis-LD-Unknown-Version001-pdf.pdf
Nielsen, R. L. Historical Corn Grain Yields in the U.S. (Purdue Univ., 2021); https://www.agry.purdue.edu/ext/corn/news/timeless/yieldtrends.html